Dietary fibre plays an important role in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that an artificial depletion of fibre as in case of refined cereals and sugars has over the last 100 years contributed to several degenerative diseases. Recent studies indicate that sufficient intake of fibre-rich diet may help prevent obesity, colon cancer, heart diseases, gallstones, irritable bowel syndrome and diabetic conditions.


Fibre in diet promotes more frequent bowel movement and softer stools. The softness of stool is largely due to the presence of emulsified gas which is produced by the bacterial action on the fibre. A high fibre intake results in greater efficiency in the peristaltic (movement of food) movement of the colon.This help in relieving constipation which is the major cause of several acute and chronic diseases such as diarrhoea, pile, etc.
Dietary fibre increases the bacteria in the large intestines which require nitrogen for their growth. This in turn reduces the chances of cancerous changes in cells by reducing the amount of ammonia in the large bowel. Fibre reduces the absorption of cholesterol in the diet. It also slow down the rate of absorption of sugars from food in the digestive system. Certain types of fibre increases the viscosity of the food content. Thus a fibre rich diet can help in diabetes mellitus.


The most significant food sources of fibre are unprocessed wheat bran, whole cereals e,g unpolished local rice, millets, barely, rye; legumes such as potato, carrots, sweet potato; fruits like mango, guava, cucumber and vegetables such as cabbage, lettuce and celery.


Staphylococcus is one of the five most common causes of infections after injury or surgery. It is abbreviated to “S. aureus” or “Staph aureus” in medical literature. S. aureus was discovered in Aberdeen, Scotland in 1880 by the surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from surgical abscesses.
Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus
S. aureus may occur commonly in the environment. S. aureus is transmitted through air droplets or aerosol. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, he or she releases numerous small droplets of saliva that remain suspended in air. These contain the bacteria and can infect others.
Another common method of transmission is through direct contact such as sex, contaminated objects by the bacteria or by bites from infected persons or animals. Approximately 30% of healthy humans carry S. aureus in their nose, back of the throat and on their skin.
Clinical manifestation of infection
Around one third of healthy individuals carry this bacteria in their noses, pharynx and on their skin. In normal healthy and immunocompentent person, S. aureus colonization of the skin, intestinal tract, or nasopharynx does not lead to any symptoms or disease.
When S. aureus is isolated from an abscess or boil or other skin lesion, it is usually due to its secondary invasion of a wound rather than the primary cause of disease. S. aureus may similarly be isolated from abscesses, breast absecesses or mastitis, dermatitis or skin infections and genital tract infections.
S. aureus is considered the classic opportunist in this way since it takes advantage of broken skin or other entry sites to cause an infection.
What Does S. aureus Cause?
Of the variety of manifestations S. aureus may cause:
1. Minor skin infections, such as pimples, impetigo etc.
2. It may cause boils (furuncles), cellulitis folliculitis, carbuncles
3. It is the cause of scalded skin syndrome and abscesses
4. It may lead to lung infections or pneumonia
5. Brain infections or meningitis
6. Bone infections or osteomyelitis
7. Heart infections or endocarditis
8. Generalized life threatening blood infections or Toxic shock syndrome (TSS), bacteremia and septicaemia.
Staph infections can range from minor skin problems to endocarditis, a life-threatening infection of the inner lining of your heart (endocardium). As a result, signs and symptoms of staph infections vary widely, depending on the location and severity of the infection.
Skin infections
Skin infections caused by staph bacteria include:
Boils. The most common type of staph infection is the boil, a pocket of pus that develops in a hair follicle or oil gland. The skin over the infected area usually becomes red and swollen.

If a boil breaks open, it will probably drain pus. Boils occur most often under the arms or around the groin or buttocks.

Impetigo. This contagious, often painful rash can be caused by staph bacteria. Impetigo usually features large blisters that may ooze fluid and develop a honey-colored crust.
Cellulitis. Cellulitis — an infection of the deeper layers of skin .

Arteriosclerosis, Causes and Symptoms

Arteriosclerosis, Causes and Symptoms

Arteriosclerosis is one of the most common diseases of the blood vessels. It refers to a thickening of the walls of the arteries due to the presence of the calcium or lime.

Arteriosclerosis is usually preceded by Atherosclerosis, a kind of degeneration or softening of the inner lining of the blood vessels walls. The most risky place for such degeneration are the coronary vessels of the heart and the arteries leading to the brain. Arteriosclerosis result in the lost of elasticity of the blood vessels, with a narrowing of the smaller arteries, which interferes with the free circulation of the blood. These changes may gradually extend to capillaries and veins. It is more frequent in men than women especially in the younger age group. It can lead to heart attack.

Symptoms of Arteriosclerosis

Signs of inadequate supply of blood usually occurs first in the legs. There may be numbness and coldness in the feet and cramps and pains in the legs even after light exercise. If the coronary arteries are involved, the patient may have sharp pains, characteristics of angina pectoris. When arteries leading to the brain are involved , the vessel may burst, causing hemorrhage in the brain tissues. A cerebral vascular stroke, with partial or complete paralysis of one side of the body may result, if there is blockage with a blood clot. It may also lead to loss of memory and a confused state of mind in elderly people. If arteries leading to the kidneys are involved, the patient may suffer from high blood pressure and kidney disorders.

Causes of Arteriosclerosis

Excessive intake of white sugar, refined foods and high fat diet rich in cholesterol. High blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, rheumatism, Brights disease, malaria, syphilis, emotional stress and sedentary lifestyle.

Health Benefits of fertility tree

Health Benefits of fertility tree

fertility tree

Botanical name- Newbouldia laevis

Family- Bignoniaceae

Nigerian names- akoko (Yoruba), aduruku (Hausa), ogirisi (Igbo)
Newbouldia laevis is a shrub or small tree reaching 7_20m high. The plant has shiny dark green leaves and bears large showy terminal purple flowers. It is a familiar live-fence and boundary tree throughout its distribution. It is often grown as an ornamental and is easily cultivated by cuttings.o

Health Benefits o f Fertility

Fertility plant also called ‘tree of life’. A deoction of the leaf is taken by women to treat ferility problems. However, a higher dosage of the leaf decoction has a uterine contraction effect and traditional healers in Nigeria use it to facilitate labour. The young leaf can also be cooked with red oil drink during labour to facilitte easy delivery. A decoction of the leaf use as gargle in the mouth for 4_5 minutes continuously is use to treat dental caries.
The bark is stomachic and analgelsic. A decoction is used in the treatment of dysentry, diarrhoea, epilepsy, cough and convulsion. The pounded dried bark combine with Xylopia sp and other spices is taken inform of herbal tea to relieve dysmenorrhoea. A decoction of the bark, sieve is taken inform of an enema as a treatment for piles and constipation. Dried powdered of the bark combined with aligator pepper(Aframomum melegueta) is sniffed inform of snuff to treat migraine and sinusitis. The bark applied externally is use to cure wounds, ulcers and abscesses.
A decoction or ethanol extract of the root is used for the treatment of syphilis and intestinal problems such as worms. The decoction of the root is laxative and is use to treat constipation. The maceration of the root is effecive for the treatment of arthritis and rheumatic pains. The powdered root combine with chili pepper(Capsicum frutescens) are put into a carious tooth to treat toothache. The powdered dry root combine with root of Lopharia sp are infused inform of ointment and use to massage oedema ariving through dietary deficiency.
Decoction of the root and leaves are remedy for scrotal elephantiasis, fever and as an aphrodisiac.

Phytochemical constituents of Fertility tree

Alkaloids, flavonoid, steroids,saponins, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins.

Vitamin compoisition of fertility tree (Mg/100g)

Leaves- VitaminA (5.19), vitaminC (2.35), vitaminE (9.33).
Stem bark- vitaminA (3.01), vitaminC (1.05), vitaminE (4.08)

Mineral composition of fertility tree (Mg/100g)

Leaves- Mg (76.12), Fe (16.84), Se (3.08)
Stem bark- Mg (54.25), Fe (1.19), Se (0.29).


All parts of N. laevis is safe for both human and animal consumption.



Botanical name        Capsicum frutescens

Local names              ata_ijosi(Yoruba)

Chili pepper is the oldest and the most pepperish species of cultivated pepper in Nigeria. It is one of the major spices used by our ancestors. Unfortunately, because of the demand for higher agricultural yield, different varieties of pepper was developed which produce bigger sizes of fruit. Because the chili pepper has small fruit, most of the farmers hardly cultivate this varieties of pepper. As a result, chili pepper is not commonly found in the market, and if found its often more expensive than the hybrid varieties. Despite the higher nutritional benefits of chili pepper  above other varieties, only few people consume it in their daily diet.


Chili pepper is cardio- tonic.  It is very effective for conditions of the heart such as high cholesterol, high blood viscosity which normally prevent normal circulation of the blood in the vessels. High cholesterol and excessive blood clothing are few of the silence causes of major cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, stroke, arteriosclerosis etc.

Chili pepper also called ‘bird pepper’ fruit is very effective in pain reliever. When use as mouth gargle it  relieve tooth ache, throat pain and sinus infection. When formulated in balm it can be applied on the skin to relieve pains from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, nerve pain and skin spasm.

I often use bird pepper to cure cold and catarrh. Use one grounded tablespoon of dried chili pepper to prepare halve- done green vegetable. Eat the vegetable twice daily for at list two days and abstain from cold water during the period.


The active chemical in chili pepper is ‘capsaicin’ and its approved by the FDA as an over-the-counter product. Medicinal lotions and creams that contain chili pepper extracts are safe for most adults when applied on the skin. Consumption of the fruit is safe as it has past  through the test of time.

Side effects include skin irritation, burning and itching, irritating to the eyes.

Do not use during or after surgery it can increase bleeding.


vitamin C (22.4), vitamin A (1.07), vitamin E (0.35), Niacin(0.47), vitamin B6 (

0.10), folic acid (7.16), vitamin K(5.81).


Ca (106.27), Na (1.11), K (331.32), Mg (236.72), P (31.44), Fe (67.16), Cu (17.08), Zn(32.18), Co (4.38), Ni (1.08).


Moisture (10.14), protein (11.97), fat (0.35), ash(16.67), insoluble (1.02), soluble(0.76), carbohydrate (58.81).


Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, Phenolic, saponin, glycosides, terpenoids and carotenoids.


Infertility is the failure to achieve conception by couples who have not used contraceptives for at least 1 year.
Inability to conceive after at least a year of regular sexual intercourse without the use of contraceptives, can be due to causes that lie either in the man or the woman or both. Identification of the underlying causation is the key to successful treatment, but is extremely difficult. It often occurs in women who have a history of conceiving and then losing the baby before the foetus is old enough to support itself outside the womb. Infertility can be either temporary or, in a small percentage of cases, permanent.
Male Infertility
The commonest cause in men is no sperm or a low sperm count. This may be caused by numerous factors including an infection after puberty which was accompanied by a high fever, unrepaired undescended testicles, taking certain medications, trauma to the testicles, or exposure to large amounts of X-ray. For the most part however, a low sperm count tends to be related to more easily reversible conditions. A long illness or a chronic infection may lower general health, as could poor diet, strenuous physical exercise, lack of exercise, too much smoking and drinking, over-weight, overwork, tension and fatigue. A common reason for a low sperm count is abnormal temperature regulation in the testicles, which function at a temperature slightly lower than the rest of the body.
Low sperm motility. This makes them unable to travel from the vagina, through the fallopian tubes to fertilize the ovum. This tends to be related to some of the above factors, and may also be due to enlargement of the prostate gland, as well as an imbalance of male hormones in the body. The vessels along which the sperm travel in men could be blocked by an inflammatory or infectious process or by varicosity in the area.
Female Infertility
A wide variety of factors can be at work here. One may be in play or a complex of interrelated factors may be at work. Common causes include:
Endocrine problems. Difficulties of the pituitary, thyroid or adrenal glands, which together regulate the menstrual cycle, may cause a failure of ovulation. To establish whether you are ovulating at regular intervals you can keep a record of your body temperature using a chart and a sensitive thermometer. Before ovulation, when there is normal secretion of oestrogen, the basic temperature on waking will be a little below normal, 97 or 97.8  0F, 36 0C. After ovulation it should rise by half or one degree and stays the same for the next two weeks.
Fallopian Tube problems. They could be blocked, sometimes because of an inherited difficulty, or because of an infection of the womb or other diseases such as salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes), endometriosis, and TB; these may cause thickening of the tubes which either narrow or completely block the passages, or they can cause the tubes, uterus and ovaries to become matted together by adhesions, or in the case of endometriosis, by growths of tissue from the uterus.
Prolapse & Fibroids. There could be malposition of the uterus or fibroids which can lead to sterility. The latter can also cause miscarriage early on, or a difficult labor. It is best to sort out this problem before conceiving. Their origin is largely related to a hormonal imbalance with an excess of oestrogen.
Cervical problems. The cervix can also be affected adversely and cause sterility. Infection or excess mucus from inflammation can expel the sperm, or polyps may prevent the sperm from entering the uterus.
Non-physical causes. In many women there are absolutely no physical problems to be found. There may be a slight hormonal imbalance or a poor state of health through faulty diet and fatigue. In perhaps a quarter of all infertile women it is emotional problems which are to blame.
There are in addition some causes of infertility which are shared by both the man and the woman. There can be antibodies to the sperm in either partner which can destroy the sperm. Occasionally there can be lack of knowledge about fertile times in a cycle.
There is much that herbs can contribute to supporting fertility, but there is no `wonder cure’. The suggestions given here will help, but the practitioner is encouraged to be creative and intuitive in remedy selection. Each individual woman and man will have plants that suit them best. Identifying them is part of the skill of the good herbalist.
Hormonal imbalance
Hormonal problems, in either partner, are readily treated with herbs. Whilst not containing hormones themselves, some herbs stimulate the glands concerned, bringing about production of the right proportions of hormones and in their right sequence in the menstrual cycle to promote conception.
Where illness, malnourishment, fatigue, and conditions such as anaemia, anorexia and kidney problems have lowered vitality and produced a state of debility which has affected fertility, there are many herbs which can help to build up the strength of the generative organs. Bitters, tonics and adaptogens are actions to consider. The specifics will depend upon the individual concerned, but application of the model for remedy selection will usually clarify this.
Emotional problems
Where emotional problems cause tension and anxiety, or when just wanting to conceive is producing psychological blockages to conception, herbal remedies may well be helpful. Perhaps some of the success of herbal remedies for infertility is related to the fact that both partners often feel they can relax a bit now that they have sought help and found a herbal remedy they feel they can rely on.
Malposition of the uterus
There are no herbal remedies for infertility caused by this problem. It might be advisable for structural work to be done. Appropriately trained gynecologist, osteopaths or chiropractors will be able to give gynecologic manipulation along with both pelvic exercises and breathing exercises that will enhance the circulation and improve the function of the reproductive organs.
To all couples trying to overcome the challenges of infertility the role of natural remedy is very crucial this is because infertility treatment require a holistic approach. As clearly written above the causes of infertility varied from both men and woman and to overcome the situation each individual needed to be treated uniquely depending on the the cause of the the problem.

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