Empty Gelatin Capsule Shell for Sale

gelatin capsule

Empty soft Gelatin Capsule  shell  for packaging of herbal capsules and supplements for sale 

Zero size #0 gelatin capsule shell with 500mg powder Capacity. A pack contains 1000 soft transparent gelatin capsule shell with cap.

We deliver nationwide through waybill or courier service.  For orders and more enquiries please visit our office or  chat with us on whatsap or call : +2347035516260.

Office address : Olason Herbal Nig Ltd , opposite zaria-kano park,  Gwagwalada Abuja.

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Calotropis procera medicinal uses

Calotropis procera Commonly known as ‘giant-milkweed’ is a flowering plant specie that is native to North Africa, Tropical Africa, Western Asia, South Asia, Nigeria and Indochina. It’s very abundant in Nigeria with the local name: Bomu-bomu in Yoruba, Tumfatiya in Hausa. The leaves is popularly use by the Fulani tribe and Hausa to prepare a traditional drink called ‘Wankachi’ and Nono. The green globes are hollow but the flesh contains a toxic milky sap that is extremely bitter and turns into a gluey coating resistant to soap. The stems and leaves have a waxy appearance and contain a milky white sap (i.e. latex). Branching occurs from the base of the plant upwards. Younger stems are greyish-green in colour, smooth in texture, and have a covering of whitish coloured hairs (i.e. they are hoary). Mature stems have a deeply fissured, cork-like, bark that is light brown in colour. This plant is used particularly for treatment of asthma, arthritis and skin related diseases.

BOTANICAL NAME : Calotropis Procera
Family :Apocynaceae
Common Name: Giantmilkweed

Yoruba : bomu bomu
Hausa : Tumfatiya


The traditional use of the giantmilkweed are innumerable. Listed below are a few viz:

(1) The flower powder help to treat ashthma
(2) the latex extract can be used to treat ear ache.
(3) a smeared mustard oil on a leaf of the plant helps treat stomach ache
(4) The leaves is used in treatment of arthritis
(5) Skin disease: A paste of the stem bark is applied on the skin surface cures skin diseases.
(6) Roots, stem bark, latex, leaves and flowers: An extract of the whole plant is taken as a tonic and purgative in small doses, and as an emetic in larger doses. It cures diarrhoea, dysentery, intestinal worms, colic, spleen complaints, pneumonia, fever, jaundice, elephantiasis and leprosy.
(7) Dried root powder : when soaked in water is taken to increase milk flow of nursing mothers and is given to women to ease child birth.
(8) Ground roots or the ash of the burnt roots : are applied as a salve or rubbed in to treat skin rash, skin infections and leprosy.
(9) Root powder : when mixed with Capsicum pepper is put in a bath to treat rheumatism and arthritis.
(10) The root bark is remedy for cough.
(11) The stem bark acts as an aphrodisiac.
(12) The leaf pulp is taken to treat snakebites. They are sometimes taken by women to induce abortion and as an uterotonic.


The latex is toxic and can cause rash, blisters and serious inflammations in sensitive persons and it may lead to blindness. Ingesting larger doses of latex produce toxic symptoms like burning in the throat, irritation of the stomach, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, tremors, vertigo and convulsions. The latex has been used as a hunting poison and fish poison, and sometimes used for criminal purposes. The milky sap contains a complex mixture of chemicals like the “cardiac aglycones”. These are steroidal heart poisons . Thus in the process of formulation, the latex and milky sap should be well processed to remove the toxic constituents and the consumption of raw plant and it’s extract must be in adherence to prescribed doses.

Calotropis procera is a wonderful and unique plant. It has great uses but because of the toxic nature of the milky latex which is very abundance in all parts of the plant caution must be taken to ensure the herb is prescribed by an  experience Herbalist before consuming it. Feel free to contact us for further advice if you need to use this herb .


(1) Gavin D. “Calotropis procera ” United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2010, p 7

(2)The Jewish Encyclopedia “apple of Sodom” Jewish encyclopedia , 2002, vol 2
(3)Whiston, William Josephus” The War of the Jews” translated by William Whiston” 1734, p 500

(4)New inversed version “Application Commentary on Kings; cf. Cogan and Tadmore, II Kings” 1956, vol 10 , p. 58

(5) F. Bruschweiler, K. Stockel & T. ” the apple of sodom reviewed ” Jewish encyclopedia, 2016 , vol 9

(6)Ahmed, K.K.M., Rana, A.C. & Dixit, V.K., 2005. Calotropis species (Asclepiadaceae) – a comprehensive review. Pharmacognosy Magazine 1(2): 48–52.

(7)Arbonnier, M., 2000. Arbres, arbustes et lianes des zones sèches d’Afrique de l’Ouest. CIRAD, MNHN, UICN. 541 pp.

(8)Baerts, M. & Lehmann, J., 2011. Calotropis procera. [Internet] Prelude Medicinal Plants Database. Metafro-Infosys, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium http://www.metafro.be/prelude. Accessed September 2011.

(9) bagherwal, P., 2011. Immunomodulatory activities of the non-dialyzable latex fraction (NDL) from Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Sciences 2(1): 114–119.

(10)Chavda, R., Vadalia, K.R. & Gokani, R., 2010. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of root bark of Calotropis procera R.Br (Asclepediaceae). International Journal of Pharmacology 6(6): 937–943.

(11) De Freitas, C.D., Lopes, J.L., Beltramini, L.M., de Oliveira, R.S., Oliveira, J.T. & Ramos, M.V., 2011. Osmotin from Calotropis procera latex: new insights into structure and antifungal properties. Biochimica & Biophysica Acta 1808(10): 2501–2507.

(12) De Oliveira, J.S., Bezerra, D.P., Teixeira de Freitas, C.D., Barreto Marinho Filho, J.D., de Moraes, M.O., Pessoa, C., Costa-Lotufo, L.V. & Ramos, M.V., 2007. In vitro cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines of laticifer proteins of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. Toxicology in Vitro 21(8): 1563–1573.

(13) Kiew, R., 2001. Calotropis R.Br. In: van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. & Bunyapraphatsara, N. (Editors). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. pp. 133–138.
(13) manikandan, M. & Arumugam, R., 2010. Potentiality of Calotropis procera on the yield of biocrudes and biogas production. Journal of Phytology 2(4): 33–40.


Peptic ulcer herbal remedies

Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the inside lining of your stomach and the upper portion of your small intestine. This article highlight Peptic ulcer causes symptoms and herbal remedies. The most common symptom of a peptic ulcer is stomach pain or feeling of burning stomach pain.

Peptic ulcers includes:

(1)Gastric ulcers that occur on the inside of the stomach
(2)Duodenal ulcers that occur on the inside of the upper portion of your small intestine (duodenum).


The most common causes of peptic ulcers are infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and long-term constipation and use of aspirin and certain other painkillers, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve, Anaprox, others). Stress and spicy foods do not cause peptic ulcers. However, they can make your symptoms worse.


Vomiting or vomiting blood — which may appear red or black
Dark blood in stools, or stools that are black or tarry
Trouble breathing
Feeling faint
Nausea or vomiting
Unexplained weight loss
Appetite changes
Burning stomach pain
Feeling of fullness, bloating or belching
Fatty food intolerance


(1)Fenugreek seed herbal tea is a favorite among peptic ulcer patients, coating the stomach lining avoiding the secretion of excess acids and treating the instance of an ulcer.
(2) banana
(3) ginseng
(4) red ricorice
(5) aloe Vera juice


Peptic ulcers are serious illnesses that are injurious to our body system. It is important to start early treatment of any suspected case of ulcer. Also to adopt a lifestyle change that abhors or minimally reduces alcoholism and smoking . Furthermore, eating when hungry is a nice approach to reducing an ulcer pain. At Olason Herbal Nig. Ltd we have specially formulated herbs for the complete treatment of peptic ulcer. Contact us today for your treatment.


(1)Gabriel, SE, Jaakkimainen, L, and Bombardier, C. “Risk for serious gastrointestinal complications related to use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A meta-analysis”. Ann Intern Med. 1991; 115: 787–796

(2)Rodriguez, LA Garcia and Barreales, TL.” Risk of upper gastrointestinal complications among users of traditional NSAIDs and COXIBs in the general population.” Gastroenterology. 2007; 132: 498–506

(3)Malfertheiner, P, Dent, J, Zeijlon, L et al. “Impact of Helicobacter pylori eradication on heartburn in patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer disease—results from a randomized trial programme.” Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002; 16: 1431–1442.

(4)Dew, MJ.” Asymptomatic peptic ulcer disease.” Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987; 15: 401

(5)Blatchford, O, Davidson, LA, Murray, WR, Blatchford, M, and Pell, J. “Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in west of Scotland: case ascertainment study” BMJ. 1997; 315: 510–514.

(6)Rockall, TA, Logan, RF, Devlin, HB, and Northfield, TC. “Incidence of and mortality from acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the United Kingdom.”Steering Committee and members of the National Audit of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage. BMJ. 1995; 311: 222–226

(7)Longstreth, GF. “Epidemiology of hospitalization for acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a population-based study”Am J Gastroenterol. 1995; 90: 206–210.

(8)Gisbert, JP and Pajares, JM. “Helicobacter pylori infection and perforated peptic ulcer prevalence of the infection and role of antimicrobial treatment. Helicobacter”2003; 8: 159–167.

(9)Gustavsson, S.” Peptic ulcer disease, complications. in: S Gustavsson, D Kumar, DY Graham (Eds.) The stomach.” Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, London, Madrid, Melbourne, New York, Tokyo; 1992: 266–277.

(10)McColl, KEL. Should non-invasive Helicobacter pylori testing replace endoscopy in investigation of dyspepsia?. Helicobacter. 2000; 5: S11–S15.

(11)McColl, KEL, Murray, LS, Gillen, D et al.” Randomised trial of endoscopy with testing for Helicobacter pylori compared with non-invasive H pylori testing alone in the management for dyspepsia. “BMJ. 2002; 324: 999–1002.


Gonorrhea herbal treatment

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (std). The bacteria that causes gonorrhea can infect the genital tract, mouth, or anus. You can get gonorrhea during vaginal, oral, or anal sex with an infected partner. A pregnant woman can pass it to her baby during childbirth. Gonorrhea is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease (STD) in Nigeria. In fact, in 1963, WHO found Lagos to have the highest gonorrhea rate in the world. Recent surveys report gonorrhea prevalence to be as high as 28.1%. Hence it is imperative that we adopt a healthy lifestyle that keeps us far from the gonorrhea infection. This can be in form of abstinence, use of protection during sex and high standards of hygiene.


Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Gonorrhea can be passed from mother to baby during delivery.
Gonorrhea and chlamydia can be experienced simultaneously.
If untreated, gonorrhea can increase a person’s risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV.


Gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all. However, men who do have symptoms, may have:

A burning sensation when urinating; a white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis; painful or swollen testicles (although this is less common).
Most women with gonorrhea do not have any symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they are often mild and can be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications from the infection, even if they don’t have any symptoms.
Symptoms in women can include:

(1)Painful or burning sensation when urinating;
(2)Increased vaginal discharge;
(3)Vaginal bleeding between periods.
(4)Rectal infections may either cause no symptoms or cause symptoms in both men and women that may include:
Anal itching;
Painful bowel movements.


Listed below are natural herbs treatment for gonorrhea

(1)Mangosteen : this is also known as Garcinia Mangostana is a common herbal remedy for Gonorrhea. However, this Southeast Asian fruit is a rare find. With its white fleshy center, the fruit is known for its rich anti-bacterial properties. The recommended way to administer this is to extract the juice and consume it orally.

(2) Garlic
(3) Tea tree oil: This is effective for treating the infection in women.
(4) apple cider vinegar
(5) Guyabano fruit
(6) aloe vera
(7) echinacea



It is very important for us to live a healthy lifestyle. Hence it is necessary to adopt all measures aimed at safeguarding us from contracting diseases like the gonorrhea. Safe sex is applied when abstinence is not guaranteed. If anyone is infected with gonorrhea, kindly reach us at Olason Herbal Nig. Ltd, we have the most potent formulation to completely eradicate the disease in your body.


(1) Abramowicz M (2010). Drugs for sexually transmitted infections. Treatment Guidelines From The Medical Letter, 8(95): 53-60.

(2)Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Gonococcal infections section of Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR, 59(RR-12): 49-55. Also available online: http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2010/default.htm.

(3)Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Update to CDC’s Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010: Oral Cephalosporins No Longer a Recommended Treatment for Gonococcal Infections. MMRW, 61(31) 590-594. Available online:http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6131a3.htm?s_cid=mm6131a3_w.

(4)Ison C, et al. (2010). Gonorrhea. In SA Morse et al., eds., Atlas of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 4th ed., pp. 24-39. Philadelphia: Saunders.

(5)Marrazzo J, et al. (2010) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In GL Mandell et al., eds., Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2753-2771. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

(6)Creighton S (2011). Gonorrhoea, search date March 2010. BMJ Clinical Evidence. Available online: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.

(7)U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2014). Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening: Final recommendation statement. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

(8)http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/chlamydia-and-gonorrhea-screening. Accessed October 14, 2014.

(9)Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Gonococcal infections section of Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR, 59(RR-12): 49-55. Also available online: http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2010/default.

(10) Sauf Doulf ” BMJ clinical practice ” , 2015, vol 58


Ovarian cyst

The ovaries are located in the lower abdomen on both sides of the uterus. Women have two ovaries that produce eggs as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Sometimes, a fluid-filled sac called a cyst will develop on one of the ovaries. Many women will develop at least one cyst during their lifetime. In most cases, cysts are painless and cause no symptoms. ovarian cysts are found during pregnancy via prenatal ultrasound screening. Majority of the ovarian cysts found in pregnancy are benign conditions and do not require surgical procedure except if it is malignant and likely to rupture or if the size of the cyst is dangerous to the pregnancy. It is important to check for presence of cysts in your ovaries benign or malignant. This article explain the complication of the ovarian cyst, causes and natural solution.


Ovarian cyst can affect women who experience their menstrual flow and also women who have passed menopause.
It can also be caused by endometriosis or polycystic ovarian syndrome. Endometrium occurs when pieces of tissues found in the womb are found elsewhere like the Fallopian tube, bladder. Blood-filled cysts can sometimes form in this tissue.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that causes lots of small, harmless cysts to develop on your ovaries. The cysts are small egg follicles that don’t grow to ovulation.


The symptoms of ovarian cyst are viz
(1)Pain in the abdomen, pelvis, sometimes radiating to the low back, is the most common symptom
(2)Feeling of bloating or indigestion
(3)Increased abdominal girth
(4)Feeling an urge to have a bowel movement or having difficult, painful bowel movements
(5)Pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia)
(6)Pain in the lower right or left quadrant of the abdomen on one side
(7)Nausea and vomiting
(8)abdominal fullness, expansion of the abdomen
(10)feeling full after eating only a small amount (early satiety),
urinary urgency.


These herbs can completely treat ovarian cyst. They are
(1) maca (lepidium meyenii)
(2) eeru ( xylopia aethiolopica)
(3) spurge (euphobia deightonni)
(4) snake weed (euphoria Hirtha)

Also eating properly and consuming enough iodine. At Olason Herbal Nig Ltd we effectively manage with natural herbs ovarian cyst, so we like you to reach out to us via www.olasonherbal.com.ng


1. malignant neoplasms and a cancer prone phenotype in prophylactic oophorectomies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996; 88: 1810–1820

(2)Hoskins, WJ. Histologic changes in the ovaries of cancer prone women: an indication of premalignant change?. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996; 88: 1790–1791.

(3)Scully, RE, Bell, D, and Abu-Jawdeh, G. Update on early ovarian cancer and cancer developing in benign ovarian tumors. in: Sharp F, Mason P, Blackett T, Berek J (Eds.) Ovarian cancer 3. Chapman & Hall, London; 1995: 139–144l

(4)Scully, RE. Early de novo ovarian cancer and cancer developing in benign ovarian lesions. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1995; 49: S9–S15.

(5)Bhan, V, Amso, N, Whitehead, MI, Campbell, S, Royston, P, and Collins, WP. Characteristics of persistent masses as asymptomatic women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1989; 96: 1384–1391

(6)Bourne, TH, Whitehead, MI, Campbell, S, Royston, P, Bhan, V, and Collins, WP. Ultrasound screening for familial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 1991; 43: 92–97.

(7) Powell, DE, Puls, L, and van Nagell, J Jr. Current concepts in epithelial ovarian tumors: does benign to malignant transformation occur?. Hum Path. 1992; 23: 846–847

(8) Poels, LE, Powell, De, DePriest, PD et al. Transition from benign to malignant epithelium in mucinous and serous ovarian cystadenocarcinoma.

(9)Zheng, J, Wan, M, Zweizig, S, Velicescu, M, Yu, MC, and Dubeau, L. Histologically benign or low grade tumors adjacent to high-grade ovarian carcinomas contain molecular characteristics of high-grade carcinomas. Cancer Res. 1993; 53: 4138–4142.

(10)Campbell, S, Goessens, L, Goswamy, R, and Whitehead, MI. Real-time ultrasonography for determination of ovarian morphology and volume: a possible early screening test for ovarian cancer. Lancet. 1982; i: 425–426


Adequate control of blood pressure

Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. Blood pressure can be measured by a sphygmomanometer or a blood pressure monitor. Blood pressure is assumed as normal if it’s value reads as 120 over 80 millimeter mercury (mmHg) . This means the systolic pressure value over the diastolic pressure value. Blood pressure reading is assumed as high if it’s value reads above 130 over 80 millimeter mercury ( American heart association AHA, November 2017). Unmanaged hypertension can lead to cardiac arrest or stroke. So, it is important for us to have an adequate control of  blood pressure by maintaining healthier diets, performing exercise or taking the right medications.


Acute causes of high blood pressure can originate from stress, come on its own or as a result of an underlying disease (for example kidney disease). Chronic kidney disease can cause hypertension because the kidney cannot filter fluid. Hence there is a retention of excess fluid in the body system. Also a family history of hypertension, uncontrollable stress and low potassium in diet can cause hypertension


listed below are the major symptoms of hypertension in humans viz:
(1) fatique or confusion
(2) severe headache
(3) vision problems
(4) chest pain
(5) irregular heartbeat
(6) difficult breathing
(7) Blood in urine
(8) feeling of a pounding sensation in your chest
(9) sweating
(10) anxiety
(11) sleeping problems

Sometimes some patients may not feel any of these symptoms of hypertension. While undetected it can cause severe damage to the cardiovascular system and internal organs like kidney. This is why it is called the “silent killer “. Hence it is imperative to check your blood pressure regularly.


the risk factors of hypertension are excess salt, excess body weight (obesity), age, smoking and alcohol.


The natural treatment of hypertension involves the following
(1) lifestyle modification : this involves weight loss, increased salt intake, exercise and eating healthy diets.
(2) medications : this can be drugs or natural herbs. Natural herbs are mostly preferred because it has minimal side effects, it does not cause any addictions and it is simple to use. Natural herbs in addition to controlling the H. B. P also help to burn excess fat and bad cholesterol thereby preventing the complications and improving normal blood circulation.  In addition most herbs if formulated by expert are like food because they are enrich with essential vitamins and elements necessary for holistic well-being of the body. 
When these herbs are taken in the right formulation and doses, they can effectively control the blood pressure .

At Olason Herbal Ltd, we have excellent herbal products prepared using the standard formulations for the effective management of hypertension. Click onCALL THE DOCTOR” OR THE GREEN ICON BELOW TO CHAT WITH THE DOCTOR ON WHATSAP FOR NATURAL HERBAL SOLUTION FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE MANAGEMENT .


(1)Chobanian AV, et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003; 289:2560-72.

(2)Carretero OA, Oparil S. Essential hypertension. Part I: definition and etiology. Circulation 2000; 101:329-35.

(3)Fieg DL. The Role of Uric Acid in the Pathogenesis of Hypertension in the Young. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension 2012; 14:346-352.

(4)Feig DL, Johnson RJ. Hyperuricemia in childhood primary hypertension. Hypertension 2003; 42:247-52.

(5)Grayson PC, et al. Hyperuricemia and incident hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res. 2011; 63:102–110.

(6)Soletsky B, Fieg DL. Uric acid reduction rectifies prehypertension in obese adolescents. Hypertension 2012; 60:1148-1156.

(7)Feig DL, Soletsky B, Johnson RJ. Effect of allopurinol on blood pressure of adolescents with newly diagnosed essential hypertension: a randomized trial. JAMA 2008; 300:924-932.

(8)Roger VL, et al. Heart disease aw70:126-35.

(9)He, FJ, MacGregor, GA. Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004; Issue 3.
Your guide to lowering blood pressure with DASH. NIH Publication No. 06-4082, 2006.

(10) dr Petr. G ” management of hypertension in old age ” English Journal of science, 2004, vol 25, pages 180-182


Diabetes management

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which the body has high blood sugar either because the body cells do not respond to insulin or because insulin production is inadequate or both. Diabetes management is important to prevent possible complications.

In 2013 over 382 million people through out the world had diabetes (Journal of world diabetes control ,2013, vol 25, page 19). In 2015 , 415 million people throughout the world had diabetes ( Wikipedia, 2016).
The essence of blood sugar control cannot be overemphasized as it involves all processes aimed at getting the blood sugar level close to normal. It involves steps like lifestyle modification (exercise, feeding habits) and drug usage. The management of diabetes is therefore key in sustaining the health of the diabetic patient.

Below are the causes of diabetes viz
(1.) Type 1 diabetes: this is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. It present itself as insulin dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes or early onset diabetes
(2) Type 2 diabetes: this is a chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar. In this case, the body does not produce insulin or the cells in the body does not react to the insulin.
(3) Pre- diabetes: this is a condition in which the blood sugar is high but not enough to be type 2 diabetes .
(4) Gestational diabetes : This is a form of high blood sugar that affects the pregnant women. Women who have experienced this are at a higher risk of developing diabetes in future.
(5) Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults(LADA) : Here the type 1 diabetes mellitus develops in the adulthood stage of life.
(6). Alzheimer’s disease
(7) Genetic defects of beta cells function
(8) mitochondria DNA mutation
(9) Genetic defect in insulin
(10) infections like coxsachecvirus B
(11) drugs like statins, glucocorticoids, thyroid gland


people with high blood sugars experience the following
(1) frequent urination (polyurial)
(2) increased thirst (polydipsia)
(3) increased hunger (polyphagia)
(4)dry mouth
(5) unexplained weight loss / weight gain
(6) fatique
(7) blurr vision
(8) erectile dysfunction syndrome
(9) yeast infection
(10) numbness or tingling of the hand and feet


there are two major tests to confirm the level of sugar in our blood. These are
(1) Fasting blood sugar test (FBS test) :
Here, if the value is
(a) at least 126mg/dl (7mmol/l) it is considered as diabetic
(b) between 100mg/dl – 125.99 mg/ dl (5.6mmol/ L — 6.9mmol/L) it is considered as pre-diabetic
(c) is less than 100mg/ dl (5.6mmol/l) it is considered as normal.
(2) ALC test : in this test, if the value is
(a) at least 6.5 percent. It is considered Diabetic
(b) between 5.7 — 5.99 percent. It is considered as pre Diabetic
(c) less than 5.7 percent IS considered as normal


There are vast natural herbal treatment for diabetes. These herbs either increases the body cells sensitivity to insulin or reduce the blood glucose levels. But care should be taken to achieve the accurate concentration , combination and dosage of these herbs for complete and efficacious therapy.
Listed below are natural herbs for diabetes management viz
(1.) black seed (nigella saliva, black cummin)
(2) artemisia annua
(3) Indian gooseberry
(4) bitter melon (mormodica charantia)
(5.) moringa plant
(6) guava leaf tea

The management of diabetes is imperative and sensitive as it can either sustain or suppress the patients internal body system. Hence strict compliance to the dosage of anti diabetic medication is ultimate. Diabetes can result in impaired vision, fatigue, numbness or tingling of the hands and feet, cardiovascular disease , hearing loss , foot ulcers or neuropathy. Hence, at Olason Herbal Ltd we have processed and manufactured the most potent anti diabetic herbal preparation and supplement at an affordable price . This is our contribution to the society to achieve a future world of people living with normal blood sugar levels.


(1) Jackson mill “how best to control diabetes” , American diabetes association, vol 3, article 6, 2017.

(2) Mayer and Baker, ” diabetes: symptoms, causes and treatment “. Medical news today, edition 15, 2017.

(3) Dr James et al . “Diabetes mellitus”. Wikipedia , 2018.

(4) Prescribing for diabetes England association, “health and social case information “, 2014, English Diabetic Journal , vol 35.

(5)Richard et al “. Guidance for the management of post prandial glucose” . American Journal of sciences, 2010 .

(6) Polanshy M. M, Anderson. ” Tea enhances insulin activity ” ,American Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, vol 2, 2002.

(7) Wright S. Day. ” Mindfulness and treatment of high blood sugar ” . Diabetes.co.uk, 2006.

(8) Dulkworth, W. Abrauva C. “Glucose control and vascular complications with type 2 diabetes “. England Journal of medicine, 360: 129- 139, 2009.

(9)Holman R.R. et al. ” 10 – year follow up on insulin glucose control in type 2 diabetes “. Newsletter britainica, 1577-1589, 2008.

(10) Elwen F. R. et al. ” An observational study of patients character mortality following hyperglycemia in animals”. vol 22, 2001.



Pupalia lappacea is a variable plant that is grown annually or perennially. It has stems ranging from 50 – 200cm in length. It belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. These stems are less woody at the base. Morphologically, the plant is sometimes erect, prostrate or sprawling. The plant’s leaves and stem can be used as medicine. The leaves are edible but must be harvested for food after watering the plant. Pupalia lappacea is indeed an all in one plant because it’s use touches every sphere of life viz:

1. To treat Infections and diseases
2. As food
3. For beautification of our skin
4. It adds an aesthetic colour to our environment
5. It is used to treat constipation


The botanical name is Papulia lappacea. Common names are forest burr, creeping cock’s comb.


Igbo : Ose, oso
Yoruba : emo agbo
Bassa-Nge- mama-agbo
Hausa : marin-kasu



1. it is used as food when added with groundnut or coconut milk and eaten with rice.
2. It is used for scarifying the skin
3. The forest burr plant is believed to be an indicator of the fertility of the soil in any area where it is grown.
4. When applied externally, the leaves are mixed with palm oil to treat boils.
5. It is used as an antitusive especially by pregnant women
6. It is used in management of diabetes because it has an hypoglycemic effect
7. It is used in treatment of wounds and cut as a traditional first aid therapy.
8. It is used for its aesthetics value in any environment it is found.

The forest burr herb contains alkaloids and some bio – molecules that potentates a hypoglycemic effect in the body, hence it is used for management of diabetes. It also compounds with anti bacterial properties thus it is used for treatment of cuts, wounds. It contains an antihistamine agent, hence it is used for treatment of stubborn coughs. It contains an anti oxidant that helps eliminates dangerous free radicals from our circulatory system (A. A felix et al, antioxidant activity of papulia lappacea, research Journal of biological sciences, vol 13).

The forest burr plant has been said to cause colic in Somalia if it is eaten prior watering so ensure it is watered before its harvest and consumption. The flower head is an ingredient of rat poison in Nigeria. The leaves are anti diabetic, diuretic and febrifuge. On histological analysis, the forest burr plant has been found to lack toxic compounds especially when it is harvested and consumed after watering.


The immense benefits of the pupalia lappacea is limitless. From its use to treat chronic cough, dysenteriferous diarrhoea and oedema to its use for scarying the skin, lower blood glucose and treat boils it is at ease that researchers chose to call it the “all in one plant”.



1. H. fatima, B. M Reddy. “Evaluation of antinocieptive and antipyretic effects of pupalia lappacea juss “, international current pharmaceutical Journal, vol 2, no 2, pp 23-28., 2013.

2. A. A felix, O. A. Domingo. “Anti oxidant activity and chemical constituent of pupalia lappacea”. Research Journal of biological sciences, vol 3, no 7, pp 783 – 788, 2008.

3. A. Ravi , M. Alvala et al.  ” Anti cancer activity of pupalia luppacea on chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells “, DARU Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, vol 20, no 1, article 86, 2012.

4. Vick kamar, et al. ” Biological evaluation of pupalia lappacea for antidiabetic, antiadipogenic and hypolipidemic activity both in vitro and in vivo “. Hindawi Journal scientifica, 2016.

5. Prasad .P., Naidu et al. “Evaluation of wound healing potential of different leaf extract of pupalia lappacea “. Academic Journals,  p- 11, 2014.

6. L. B. Kagale et al. ” The antipodals of pupalia lappacea juss ” current science, vol 6, no 5, pages 222, 1937.

7. S. T. Tanson.  ” Naturally occurring polyploidy in pupalia leppacea”.  Current science, vol 31, no 6, pages 252 – 254, 1962.

8. Harder Singh. ” A new aerial host of pupalia Lappacea. ” Current science vol 31, No 12, pages 521- 522, 1962.

9. Dr amehs G. ” The hypoglycemic effect of the Forest Burr plant. “Indian Journal of pharmaceutical science, vol 5, pages 115 -119, 2011.

10. Anthony. C et al.  ” The pupalia lappacea plant: uses and toxicology”.  Pakistani newsletter of science, vol 51, pages 65- 69.



Ricinus communis plant is also called the castor oil plant . It is a fast growing evergreen herbaceous and semi woody large shrub that is native to mid -east Africa and northeast Africa.It’ s also cultivated here in Nigeria. It has vast uses ranging from its antitusive property, relieve of severe constipation, expulsion of worm infestation, treatment of skin disorders and management of arthritis. As effective as this castor oil plant derivatives, it must be taken in appropriate prescribed doses.

kingdom : Plantae
Order : Malphighiales
Family : Euphorbiacaeae

BOTANICAL NAME: Ricinus communis Linn.


IGBO : Ogiri igbo.
HAUSA: Cika_ gidaa

ENGLISH NAME : Castor oil plant, castor bean.


Castor oil plant has different parts viz the roots, leaf, seed and oil which potentate various medicinal uses traditionally.

1. The root of castor oil plant is used for the treatment of nervous diseases and rheumatism.
2. The oil of castor plant is used as a strong laxative, diuretic and for treatment of severe constipation.
3. The oil of castor plant is used to relieve boils and skin related diseases
4. The oil of castor plant is usually massage on the breasts of lactating mothers to increase milk let out (milk flow).
5. The seed of castor oil plant is used for birth control.
6. The leaf of the castor plant is used to treat severe cough.
7. The oil of castor plant is used to improve hair growth.
8. The leaf of castor plant is used to treat delayed, painful or obstructed menstruation
9. The seed of castor plant is a natural contraceptive
10 . The oil of the castor plant has anti bacterial properties


The seed of the castor plant is highly toxic due to its ricin content. Thus for purification of these seeds to reduce its toxicity, it is fermented in coconut water for 3 hours then they are washed and dried for use. It’s fatal dose is usually between 5- 10 seeds daily.


1. The ricin content in the castor seed causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, seizures and hypotension.
2. The oleic acid and linoleic acid content of the castor plant prevents inflammation and treats rheumatism.
3. The ricinoleic acid content help treat delayed, painful and obstructive menstruation.
4. Castor oil leaf acts as galactogogues to stimulate milk secretion.
5. Its fatty acid oils help to increase milk quantity in breast feeding mothers.
6. The methanolic extract of castor plant contains steroids, flavonoids and alkaloids that confers an antinocieptive activity (treatment for inflammation and management of pain)
7. The ethanolic root extract containing saponine confers its anti asthmatic property
8. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of the castor plant contains flavonoids that have hepato-protective activity.
9. The oleic fatty oils in the castor oil boost immune system by increasing the production of lymphocytes that improves circulatory and digestive systems.


From the discourse above it is clearly evident that castor oil plant confers potential health benefits when used at appropriately prescribed doses.


1. Khogali A, Barakat S, Abou-Zeid H. “Isolation and identification of the phenolics from Ricinus communis L.” . Delta J. Sci. 16, 198–211, 1992.

2. T. Isam, A. Gupta, et al, “Assessment of antibacterial potential of the ricinus communis leaves”. International Journal of pharmaceutical science and research, 2010.

3. R. E. Ucheya, Osaji Chukwuma. The effects of the methanolic extract of ricinus communis on the liver of adult wistar rats. Nigerian Journal of Medical sciences ,vol 12, pages 235-237, 2009.

4. Taur D. J., Patil R. Y. “Antiasthmatic activity of Ricinus communis L. Roots. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine S13-S16, 2011.

5. Salem G. , Ahmad S., et al. Incredible potential of castor oil. world Journal of pharmaceutical science, 1995.

6. Richard G., et al. pharma research: medicinal importance of ricinus communis seed “, 2003 , www.pharmaresearchlibrary.com

7. Vikram Chauham. Castor plant planet Ayurveda.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopiea of India, Part – 1, Vol – III, Pg 49- 50, 2017.

8. Dr. H. Anthens. 19 Ricinus communis health benefits and medicinal uses , 2018 . Drhealthbenefits.com.

9. Diana Kaniecki. Medicinal purpose of castor oil seed, 2017.www.livestrong.com

10. Ricinus communis : the phytopharmacological review, 2016. www.researchgate.com

11. Ricinus communis. Wikipedia, 2018.


Medicinal herbs are plants that are used for medicinal purposes. Other types of herbs include culinary herbs ( used to flavour food), aromatic herbs ( used to add fragrance). Medicinal herbs cover a wide range of types of plants. They can be annual or perennials; woody or herbaceous; sun loving or shade requiring. The parts use for medicinal purposes may be their leaves, flowers, root, seeds or bark. Medicinal herbs have been in use by both plants and animals for many thousand years. Not surprisingly many medicinal plants have a rich folklore associated with them. This cultural history is an important part of many communities in Nigeria and many other countries. In addition to their cultural importance, many medicinal herbs are important economically. Due to Nigeria’s topographical advantage, many medicinal herbs survive naturally or can be cultivated for their economic and medicinal uses.

However, despite the wide research and scientific evidence in support of traditional claims of medicinal herbs by researchers worldwide, many of the herbs are still largely untapped. The reason been the problem of identification as the science journals which frequently publish the findings usually utilize the scientific names of the plants which is not familiar to many who does not understand such botanical jargons.

This post is aim to provide common and Nigerian names to medicinal herbs to ease the identification and possibly the utilization of these wonderful herbs. You are also free to share the names of plants in your local language using the comment box below. Let’s help someone identify the herbs! . Thanks.




Medicinal uses of pupalia lappacea and local Nigerian names
1.  Pupalia lappacea

Common names:  Forest burr, Creeping cock’s comb.

Nigerian names:        Emo-agbo ( Yoruba);  mama-agbo ( Bassa Nge);  Marin KASU ( Hausa);  ose ( Igbo).

Medicinal uses


Medicinal uses of pseudocedrela kotschyi and local Nigerian names
2.  Pseudocedrela kotschyi

Common names:  Dry-zone cedar, hard cedar-mahogany.

Nigerian names: Juna (Hausa); akodinrin (Yoruba).


Medicinal uses of psidium guajava and local Nigerian names
3. Psidium guajava

Common name:  guava

Nigerian names: guaba (Yoruba); goba ( Hausa); ugwoba ( Igbo).


Medicinal uses of ricinus communis and local Nigerian names
4.  Ricinus communis

Common name: Castor bean.

Nigerian names: Lara (Yoruba); ogili ugba (Igbo); eraogi (Edo); cika-gidaa (Hausa).

Medicinal uses of castor oil plant


Medicinal uses of piliostigma thonningii and local Nigerian names
5.  Piliostigma thonningii

Common names: Camel’s foot; monkey bread; wild bauhinia.

Nigerian names: Abafe (Yoruba); nyihar (Tiv); kalgo (Hausa); okpoatu ( Igbo); amukpakpa ( I gala).


Medicinal uses of physalis angulata and local Nigerian names
6.  Physalis angulata

Common names: angular winter cherry; balloon cherry; cutleaf groundcherry; gooseberry;  hogweed; wild tomato.

Nigerian names: koropo ( Yoruba); ogwu ari (Igbo); tsaada biri ( Hausa).

Medicinal uses of parkia biglobosa and local Nigerian names
7. Parkia biglobosa

Common names: African locust bean tree.

Nigerian names: dorowa (Hausa); igi iru ( Yoruba); ogiri (Igbo).


Calotropis procera medicinal uses and local Nigerian names
8. Calotropis procera

COMMON NAME: Giant milk weed

NIGERIAN NAMES:  Bomubomu (Yoruba), Tumfafiya (Hausa).



Medicinal uses of Heliotropum indicum and local Nigerian names
9. Heliotropium indicum

Family : Boraginaceae

COMMON NAME:  Indian heliotrope, beak of the vulture,

Nigerian names: agogo-igun or aparigun ( Yoruba), kalkashin kooraama(Hausa), Agukwu (Igbo).


Medicinal uses of Grewia mollis and local Nigerian names
10. Grewia mollis

Family: Malvaceae

Common name

Local Nigerian names: Origo (Yoruba), Dargaza (Hausa).


Medicinal uses and local Nigerian names of gomphrena celosioides
11. Gomphrena celosioides

Family: Amaranthaceae

Common name :Bachelor’s button,  Postrate globe amaranth

Local Nigerian names: Ipopo-ale (Yoruba)


12. Gloriosa superba

Family : Colchicaceae

Common Names: flame lily,  fire lily, glory lily,  tiger claw lily,  climbing lily

Nigerian names: ewe aje,  ewe akalamagbo (Yoruba)


Gardenia ternifolia image
13. Gardenia ternifolia

Family: Rubiaceae

Common names: powder-bark gardenia, mutara.

Nigerian names:


14. Flueggea virosa

Family: Euphorbiacease

Common names: white berry bush, wild bush weed.

Local Nigerian names: Itachen-gado, gwiiwaar karee Hausa), njisinta ( Igbo), Iranje (Yoruba).


15. Euphorbia kamerunica

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Common name: fence cactus

Nigeria names: garuru(Kanuri), abananya(Igbo), agondo(Tiv),



16. Euphoria heterophylla

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Common names: fire plant, painted euphorbia, Japanese poinsettia, desert poinsettia, fire on the mountain, milkweed , kaliko plant.

Nigerian names: egele, egunjobi, akun esan (Yoruba), ozigban (Edo), noonon kurciyaa (Hausa), obuani, oba ala (Igbo).

17. Dialium guinense fruit

Family: Leguminosae

Common names: velvet tamarind, black tamarind, tumble tree, black timber.

Nigerian names: awin, igbaru (Yoruba), icheku (Igbo), tsamiyar kurm (Hausa).


18. Detarium microcarpum

Family: Fabaceae

Common names: sweet detar, sweet daltock, tallow tree.

Nigerian names: arira(Yoruba), gogoyi(Gwari), taura (Hausa).


19. Desmodium velutinum

Family: Papilionoidae

Common names: chit kiboota, latka (India)

Nigerian names: emo (Yoruba), EMA (Igala, Bassa Nge), danka (Hausa), Dafi (Damgere).

20. Datura stramonium

Family: Solanaceae

Common names: Jimson weed, devil’s weed, thorn apple, mad apple, angel’s trumpet.

Nigerian names: gegemu, apikan (Yoruba), zakami (Hausa), myaramuo ( Igbo).


21. Daniella oliveri

Family: Leguminosae

Common names: African copaiba balsam, West African copal, Ilorin balsam, Benin gum-copal, agbomi.

Nigerian names: iya (Yoruba), make (Hausa).


22. Cyperus haspan

Family: Cyperaceae

Common name: dwarf papyrus sedge

Nigerian names: ayaa-ayaa (Hausa).

23. Cymbopogon citratus

Family: Poaceae

Common names: lemon grass, oil grass, French citronelle, fausse citronelle

Nigerian names: eti (Edo), tsauri (Hausa), myoyaka oakara, achara ehi (Ibibio), akwukwo (Igbo), oko oba, tii (Yoruba).


24. Crotalaria retusa

Family: Leguminosae

Common names: devil-bean, rattle weed, shack-shack, wedge-leaf, rattle pod.

Nigerian names:


25. Citrullus colocynthis

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Common names: colocynth, bitter apple, bitter cucumber, desert gourd, vine of Sodom, hanzal.

Nigerian names: bara, egusi (Yoruba), kwartowa (Hausa), egwusi, elili (Igbo).


26. Croton penduliflorus

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Common names:

Nigerian names: aworoso (Yoruba).


27. Berlinia grandiflora

Family: Caesalpinoidae

Common names: kpendi, bois de rose (French)

Nigerian names: apado (Yoruba), dokar rafi (Hausa), baborochi (Nupe), ububa (Igbo).


28. Asparagus africanus Lam.

Family: Asparagaceae

Common names: African aficanus, white asparagus.

Nigerian names: Aluki (Yoruba), code (Hausa), fulan yollo (Zarma).


29. Acacia nilotica (L) Wills.Ex Delile.

Family: Fabaceae

Common names: gum Arabic, Egyptian mimosa, scorpion mimosa, acacia tannin

Nigerian names: baani, booni (Yoruba), bagaruwa (Hausa).


30. Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

Family: Amaranthaceae

Common names: spiny amaranth, prickly amaranth

Nigerian names: namijin gaasayaa, namijin zaaki banzaa (Hausa), inine ogwu, nnuno oku (Igbo), efo tete, tete egun, tete elegun (Yoruba).


31. Cochlospermum planchonii Hook.f.

Family: Cochlospermaceae

Common names:

Nigerian names: zunzunaa (Hausa), gombara (Nupe), awo owu, gbehutu, very (Yoruba).


32. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.), I.M. Johnst.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Common names: chaya, tree spinach, cabbage star, tread softly, hospital too far.

Nigerian names: efo iyanapaja

33. Cleome viscosa L.

Family: Capparaceae

Common names: tickleweed, wild mustard, spider plant

Nigerian names: eyazo (Nupe), Tafarnwakura (Hausa), ekuye, ekuya (Yoruba).


34. Casia/Senna Occidental is (Linn.), Link

Family: Fabaceae

Common names: coffee senna, septicweed, negro coffee, bana chakunda (India)

Nigerian names: ako rere (Yoruba), tafassaar masar (Hausa).


35. Casia/Senna alata Linn.

Family: Leguminosae

Common names: emperor’s candlestick, candle bush, Christmas candles, ringworm shrubs.

Nigerian names: asunwon (Yoruba), ogalu (Igbo).


36. Caesalpinia pulcherima (Linn.), SW.

Family: Caesalpinioideae

Common names: pride of Barbados, flower fence, red bird of paradise

Nigerian names:


37. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.), Kurt

Family: Crassulaceae

Common names: life plant, miracle leaf, air plant, cathedral bells

Nigerian names: odaa opue (Igbo), abamoda, odundun (Yoruba), satura(Hausa).


38. Borassus aethiopum Mart.

Family: Arecaceae

Common names: African fan palm, African Palmyra palm, deleb palm, Ron palm, toddy palm, black rhun palm, elephant palm, borassus palm.

Nigerian names:


39. Basella alba L.

Family: Basellaceae
Common names: malabar spinach, Ceylon spinach, Indian spinach.
Nigeria names: amunututu, efo oyibo (Yoruba), gborongi (Igbo).


40. Arachis hypogaea L.

Family: Fabaceae

Common names: groundnut, goober, peanut

Nigerian names: epa (Yoruba), gedda (Hausa), okpamkpa (Igbo).


41. Martynia annual L.
41. Martynia annual fruit

Family: Martyniaceae

Common names: cat’s claw, tiger’s claw

Nigerian names: ekana asa (Yoruba).


42. Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill. & Perr.

Family: Combretaceae

Common names: African birch, bambara, maure (Arabic)

Nigerian names: farin gamji, maarike (Hausa), atara (Igbo), ayin (Yoruba)


43. Annona senegalensis Pers.

Family: Annonaceae

Common names: wild custard apple

Nigerian names: gwandar daajii (Hausa), ukpokpo (Igala), anumgbere (Bassa Nge), uburu ocha (Igbo), ngonowu (Kanuri), abo (Yoruba).


44. Adansonia digitata L.

Family: Bombacaceae

Common names: baobab, monkey bread tree, sour gourd, cream of tartar tree

Nigerian names: kuka (Hausa), usi (Edo), ose (Yoruba), kalkuwa (Kanuri), obobo (Igala), ebobo (Bassa Nge).


45. Abrus precatorius L.

Family: Papilionoideae

Common names: crab’s eyes, bird’s eye, prayer beads, lucky bean, Indian liquorice, wild liquorice, jequirity

Nigerian names: ominsimisi, werenjeje, ojuologbo (Yoruba), idon zakara (Hausa)


46. Nauclea latifolia SM.

Family: Rubiaceae

Common names: African cinchona, African quinine, African peach, African pincushion

Nigerian names: egbesi, gberesi (Yoruba), ubulu inu (Igbo), tabasiya, marga (Hausa)


47. Newbouldia laevis Seem.

Family: Bignoniaceae

Common names: fertility tree

Nigerian names: ikhimi (Edo), aduruku (Hausa), itomo (Ibibio), ogilisi, ogirisi (Igbo), dinbere cin amile (Nupe), akoko (Yoruba).


48. Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.
48. Mucuna pruriens pod

Family: Fabaceae

Common names: velvet bean, Bengal velvet, Florida velvet, Mauritius velvet bean, lacuna bean.

Nigerian names: werepe (Yoruba), agbala, agboloko (Igbo)


49. Morinda lucida Benth.

Family: Rubiaceae

Common names: Brimstone tree

Nigerian names: oruwo (Yoruba), eze-ogwu (Igbo)


50. Mimosa pigra L.

Family: Fabaceae

Common names: giant sensitive tree

Nigerian names: aluro (Yoruba)


51. Gmelina arborea Roxb.

Family: Labiatae

Common names: gmelina, gamari, gumbar

Nigerian names:


52. Loranthus sp

Family: Loranthaceae

Common name: mistletoe

Nigerian names: afomo (Yoruba).


53. Lippia multiflora Moldenke

Family: Verbenaceae

Common names: tea bush, Gambian tea bush

Nigerian names: efinrin gogoro, efinrin odan, efinrin oko (Yoruba), godon kada (Hausa)


54. Leucas martinicensis (Jacq.) R. Br.

Family: Lamiaceae

Common names: whitewort, gi-kunduru-kunduru, mondobalo

Nigerian names: dindikudi (Yoruba)


55. Kigelia Africans (Lam.) Benth. Fruit
55. Kigelia Africans (Lam.) Benth.

Family: Bignoniaceae

Common names: sausage tree

Nigerian names: ugbon-gbon (Edo), hantsar-giiwaa (Hausa), alamborogoda, oke ogirisi (Igbo), pandoro (Yoruba)


56. Jatropha gossypifolia L.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Common names: bellyache bush, black physic nut, purging nut

Nigerian names: lapalapa pupa, botuje pupa (Yoruba), oruruebo (Edo), olulu idu, akimbogho (Igbo)


57. Jatropha curcas L.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Common names: physic nut, Barbados nut, poison nut, purging nut

Nigerian names: lapalapa funfun, botuje, iyalode (Yoruba), oru-ebo (Edo), bii no da zuguu, cii ni dazuguu (Hausa), ocigbede (Idoma), owulu idu (Igbo), choyo (Bassa Nge).


58. Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

Family: Convolvulaceae

Common names: sweet potato, Spanish potato

Nigerian names: iyan-ebo (Edo), ba-fadamee (Hausa), ji-oyibo (Igbo), anamo (Yoruba)


59. Cissus populnea Guill. & Perr.

Family: Vitaceae

Common names: oseille des pygmees (French)

Nigerian names: ogbolo (Yoruba), okoho(Idoma, Igbo), okofio (Igala), dafara, latutuwa (Hausa).


60. Hyptis suaveolensis (L.) Poit

Family: Labiatae

Common names: bush tea-bush

Nigerian names: arunfofo, jagbo (Yoruba)


61. Hymenocardia acida Tul.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Common names: digbe (French)

Nigerian names: karagwehi (Gwari), jan itaacee (Hausa), ikalaga (Igbo), orupa(Yoruba), erukpa (Bassa Nge)


62. Momordica charantia L.

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Common names: African cucumber, balsam pear

Nigerian names: ejinrin, ejinrin wewe, akara aje (Yoruba), daddagu, garaafunii (Hausa), kakayi (Igbo).



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